Friday, May 22, 2020

Enron, The Natural Gas Provider Essay - 923 Words

Enron, the natural gas provider turned trader of natural gas commodities and in 1994, electric, was once touted as the seventh largest company in America. Kenneth Lay, founder, began changing Enron from just a provider into a financial energy powerhouse. Lay took advantage of the dot-com boom of the late 1990’s by creating Enron Online, an internet trading platform. Internet stocks were valued at astronomical prices and were all the rage on wall street, who accepted the increasing prices as normal (Investopedia). On December 2, 2001 Enron declared chapter 11 bankruptcy, resulting in the loss of twenty thousand jobs and billions of investor and creditor dollars. Enron, once designated as America s Most Innovative Company by Fortune for six years consecutively, enacted massive financial fraud at the fault of its top level executives: Kenneth Lay, Jeffery Skilling, and Andrew Fastow. A question asked by Bethany McLean, a reporter for Fortune Magazine, in 2001 was â€Å"how does Enron make its money?† (Mclean) This, a quite straightforward question, was something that the executives refused to answer, citing confidentiality. Jeffery Skilling agreed to join Enron as CEO on the condition that the use of use mark-to-marketing (MTM) accounting would be allowed. Arthur Andersen, the companies accounting firm, and the SEC signed off on it, and Skilling joined the company in 1990 (Enron: The Smartest Guys in the Room). This type of accounting values an asset based on its current marketShow MoreRelatedNorthern Natural Gas Company Management1225 Words   |  5 Pages Enron Corporation was once known as Northern Natural Gas Company, Founded in 1932 in Omaha, Nebraska as a provider of natural gas. Through its early stages, Northern Natural Gas Company was unsuccessful in their business venture. They experienced problems in persuading consumers to use natural gas to heat their homes because of fear that natural gas leaks lead to explosions. Thanks to the great depression, many people were taking the risk because of how relatively cheap natural gas was. As theRead MoreManagement Organization1074 Words   |  5 Pagespotential. This paper will discuss Enron, and the business failure that occurred. At one time, Enron was one of the largest energy providers in America, based out of Houston, Texas. This paper will explain how specific organizational behavior theories could have predicted Enron’s failure. Also provide a comparison and contrast how leadership management and organizational structures contributed to the failure. Enron History Enron was founded in 1985 by Kenneth Lay. Enron was formed by Mr. Lay† mergingRead MoreEnron Stakeholders1700 Words   |  7 PagesBA 215 Spring 2007 Enron Stakeholder Assignment Enron was a dream come true for a lot of people, but it was also a nightmare waiting to happen for many more. I am going to examine the collapse of Enron from the management perspective. The three examples of Enron behaving badly that I am going to study are the incidents in Valhalla, the electricity trading in California and the conflict of interest between Andy Fastow and his special purpose entities (SPE). These are just a few cases that ledRead MoreHistory of Enron: What is Fraudulent Financial Reporting?770 Words   |  3 PagesEnron Corporation History of Enron Enron Corporation was founded in Omaha, Nebraska (US), and in 1985 Houston Natural Gas Consolidated with InterNorth to make, what is now established as the energy based company. The corporation based in Houston, Texas (founded in 1985) was known as the better enterprise in North America that accomplished one of the vast natural gas transmission networks. â€Å"Enron was a provider of products and services related to natural gas, electricity and communications to wholesaleRead MoreEnron Stakeholders Essay1634 Words   |  7 PagesEnron Stakeholder Assignment Enron was a dream come true for a lot of people, but it was also a nightmare waiting to happen for many more. I am going to examine the collapse of Enron from the management perspective. The three examples of Enron behaving badly that I am going to study are the incidents in Valhalla, the electricity trading in California and the conflict of interest between Andy Fastow and his special purpose entities (SPE). These are just a few cases that led to the failure ofRead MoreEssay on Overview of the Enron Scandal1217 Words   |  5 Pages Enron Corporation was an energy company founded in Omaha, Nebraska. The corporation chose Houston, Texas to home its headquarters and staffed about 20,000 people. It was one of the largest natural gas and electricity providers in the United States, and even the world. In the 1990’s, Enron was widely considered a highly innovative, financially booming company, with shares trading at about $90 at their highest points. Little did the public know , the success of the company was a gigantic lie, and possiblyRead MoreAccounting Scandals And The Enron Corporation1721 Words   |  7 Pageshappened in numerous companies. In one major case, the firm filed for bankruptcy, and many of its workers lost their jobs, savings, and investments from stocks. This major epidemic happen at Enron, an energy firm stationed in Houston, Texas founded by Kenneth Lay in 1986 (Frontain). On December 2, 2001, the Enron Corporation, an apparently strong and booming business, fell to an all-time low by shocking the world when it filed for bankruptcy protection. Many people were left unemployed and withoutRead MoreEthical Issues Of Business Ethics1369 Words   |  6 Pagesaccountants in particular are the main reason for the drop in moral standards. Due to the nature of their profession, employers, clients and mainly the general public rely on their trust. However their involvement in recent corporate scandals like Enron reflect on their actions no t compiling with the proposed ethical guidelines and it is said that when working in these corporations they have focused on the not so important and lacked interest in the important things, which in this case is the ethicsRead MoreCase Study Essay2170 Words   |  9 PagesEnron Corporation began as a small natural gas distributor and, over the course of 15 years, grew to become the seventh largest company in the United States. Soon after the federal deregulation of natural gas pipelines in 1985, Enron was born by the merging of Houston Natural Gas and InterNorth, a Nebraska pipeline company. Initially, Enron was merely involved in the distribution of gas, but it later became a market maker in facilitating the buying and selling of futures of natural gas, electricityRead MoreEssay on The Beginning of the End of Enron1828 Words   |  8 Pagesattention from the company’s financial performance. Enron Corporation, a natural gas provider, led the pack with dubious accounting pr actices, a series of off-balance sheet transactions, and a series of investigations that ultimately led to beginning of accounting reform. The Beginning of the End of Enron

Sunday, May 10, 2020

Agencias para trabajar en cruceros y sueldos de empleos

Los cruceros que inician sus viajes en un puerto de Estados Unidos  son una gran fuente de empleo de todo tipo de profesiones y trabajos. Unas 20 millones de personas se embarcan cada aà ±o en este tipo de cruceros para disfrutar sus vacaciones y para servirles las navieras recurren a trabajadores (tripulantes)  de todo tipo de nacionalidades. Agencias para trabajar en cruceros de EE.UU. Entre las principales empresas de cruceros que inician o finalizan sus viajes en  un puerto de Estados Unidos destacan, entre otros, Carnival Cruises Line, Celebrity Cruises, Cunard Line, Disney Cruise Line, Holland America Line, MSC Cruises USA, Norwegian Cruise Line, Princess Cruises. Para conseguir un trabajo en un crucero en ocasiones es posible contactar directamente con la empresa pero frecuentemente delegan el trabajo de seleccionar empleados a agencias con las que trabajan y que pueden estar ubicadas en Estados Unidos o en otros paà ­ses. Las siguientes agencias no cobran dinero a la persona que busca trabajo a cambio de informacià ³n, de entrevistarlo o de embarcarlo. Su negocio està ¡ en escoger buenos trabajadores y la empresa de crucero les paga por ello. Por otro lado, algunas pueden brindar cursos para adquirir conocimientos para el trabajo o para mejorar el idioma inglà ©s. Por su ubicacià ³n destacan las siguientes agencias: Argentina: Cauw International Group: Infocauwing.comCrew Cruise: crewcruisegmail.comGlobal Recruitment Agency: Ship Management Agency: 54-11-43-43-4410 Colombia: Ibercoll S.AS. 571-2350023The Seven Seas Group Costa Rica: The Seven Seas Group Espaà ±a: MobicacrewSovren Crew. 34-971-677-375The Seven Seas Group Estados Unidos: The Apollo GroupCTI Recruitment and Placement Agency. 1-954-568-5900. Guatemala: Guatemala Seamans Service Agency: 502-7948- 2016. Honduras: Honduras Seamans Office Srl Mà ©xico: Mexicrew: applymexicrew.comPersohotel International. 988-892-4474. Panamà ¡: Panama Marine Services. 507-393-9281 Perà º: CRC Cruise Recruiting Consulting. (51-1) 521-1672. Tipos de empleos en cruceros Pueden encontrarse las siguientes categorà ­as de empleos en los cruceros: Oficiales, como capità ¡n y ayudantes. Es muy comà ºn que todos los oficiales de un barco sean de la misma nacionalidad.   Personal encargado del mantenimiento y buen funcionamiento del barco, son lo que se conoce en inglà ©s como deck and engine room jobs. Las profesiones dentro de esta categorà ­a son muy variadas y requieren distinto tipo de conocimiento, por ejemplo: Mantenimiento (jefe y subordinados), jefe de seguridad, ingeniero jefe y subordinados, electricista, plomero (fontanero), etc. Empleados en labores de diversià ³n, comprende actividades tan dispares como instructores de natacià ³n y gimnasio, trabajadores de casino, guà ­as turà ­sticos, mà ºsicos, disc jockeys, anfitriones y artistas. En esta categorà ­a es muy comà ºn que se requiera tener como idioma materno el inglà ©s o hablarlo a nivel casi nativo. Trabajos relacionados con servicios, incluye desde personal de cocina y comedores a limpiadores de camarotes y empleados de las tiendas. Personal para el cuidado de los turistas, incluye desde mà ©dicos y enfermeras a peluqueras, masajistas y manicuristas, etc. Como regla general, en todos los cruceros el alojamiento y la comida es gratis para todos los miembros de la tripulacià ³n. Finalmente, los contratos suelen ser de unos seis meses, aunque frecuentemente se prorrogan. Sueldos medio de empleos en un crucero Los cruceros que salen o acaban su viaje en un puerto de EE.UU. suelen brindar a sus trabajadores salarios similares, segà ºn datos de, entre otros, Glassdoor e Indeed, son los siguientes: Oficiales: son  puestos de mayor responsabilidad y mejor pagados. Los salarios varà ­an segà ºn la posicià ³n y experiencia. Capità ¡n: entre $6,000 y $10,000 al mesAyudantes del capità ¡n: Entre $5,000 y $7,000 al mesPrimer oficial: Entre $4,000 y $5,000 al mes Profesionales encargados del mantenimiento y buen funcionamiento del barco.  Ejemplos de salarios medios: Oficial de seguridad: de $2,500 a $3,500Handyman  (mantenimiento). Entre $1,800 y $2,500 al mesAyudantes del handyman,  lo que se conoce en inglà ©s como able seaman y hacen labores bà ¡sicas de limpieza y reparacià ³n. Entre $1,500 y $1,800.Ingeniero jefe: Entre $5,500 y $8,500Electricista jefe: entre $3,000 y $4,000 al mesElectricista: Entre $2,000 y $2,400 al mesPlomero (fontanero): entre $1,600 y $2,400 Otros tripulantes Un buen nà ºmero de tripulantes contratados en un crucero trabajan en la cocina. Las posiciones son muy variadas, asà ­ como el conocimiento de inglà ©s que se exige y el nivel de experiencia. Los sueldos tambià ©n son muy diferentes. Algunos ejemplos: Chef: como mà ­nimo, $4,000 al mesSous Chef Ejecutivo: a partir de $3,800 al mesSous Chef: entre $3,400 y $5,800 al mes1er cocinero: aproximadamente $2,000  al mes2do cocinero: entre $1,600 y $2,200 al mes3er cocinero: a partir de los $1,400 al mes. Esta posicià ³n y las anteriores requieren un excelente conocimiento del idioma inglà ©sPersonal bà ¡sico de cocina: entre $900 y $1,200Personal de limpieza (dishwasher), entre $500 y $600 al mes. Estas dos à ºltimas posiciones pueden ser desempeà ±adas por personas con conocimiento muy bà ¡sico del inglà ©s. No se requiere experiencia.Personal de comedores, bares y cafeterà ­as que no tienen un buen conocimiento del inglà ©s o carecen de experiencia como apoyo a camareros,  preparacià ³n de snacks, etc. El sueldo se fija por contrato  suele ir entre los $350 a los $500 a la semana.Gerente de tiendas: a partir de $2,200 al mesVendedor en tienda: a partir de $1,400 al mes Tripulantes con salario y propinas (tips) Trabajan con los clientes y tienen un buen conocimiento verbal del inglà ©s. Tambià ©n es frecuente que para desempeà ±ar este tipo de empleo se pida experiencia en el puesto de trabajo o estudios que lo califiquen. Ejemplos promedio de salarios de propinas, que varà ­an grandemente segà ºn el tipo de barco y recorrido: Mesero/a de barra de bar (Bar Waiter): entre $1,000 y $2,500 al mesAsistente de mesero de comedor (Busboy): entre $1,500 y $3,000 al mesBarman: entre $1,500 y $3,000 al mesMesero/a (camarero) de comedor: $2,500 a $4,000 al mes Como regla general puede decirse que los salarios son superiores al salario mà ­nimo en Estados Unidos. Documentacià ³n para trabajar en un crucero Para trabajar en un crucero que inicia, acaba o viaje tocando un puerto de Estados Unidos es necesario tener un documento que autorice a trabajar. Los trabajadores extranjeros que no tienen una green card pueden solicitar una visa. Puede ser de dos tipos: la D, para miembros de un barco que toca EE.UU. y necesitan trabajar para el funcionamiento del mismo y la C1/D cuando el trabajador necesita ingresar a EE.UU. para embarcar en el crucero en el que va a trabajar. Finalmente, cabe destacar que los trabajadores en cruceros que son estadounidenses o tienen una tarjeta de residencia permanente pagan impuestos en EE.UU. Sin embargo, los extranjeros con visa C1/D no tienen que pagar impuestos en Estados Unidos, si bien hay excepciones en funcià ³n de acuerdos internacionales. Puntos Clave: Cà ³mo conseguir trabajo en un crucero y salarios medios  ¿Cà ³mo conseguir trabajo en un crucero que sale de un puerto de EE.UU.?: contactando directamente con la empresa (en algunos casos) o con una agencia que trabaja con dichas empresas. ¿Quà © no debe hacerse?: no debe pagarse a ninguna agencia por folletos, libros, entrevistas o por embarcar. ¿Es necesario hablar inglà ©s?: sà ­, pero el nivel que se exige depende del tipo de trabajo que se realiza. ¿Cuà ¡l es el salario medio?: Hay grandes diferencias segà ºn el trabajo que se desempeà ±a. En general, incluso en los peor pagados el sueldo es superior al salario mà ­nimo en EE.UU. Ademà ¡s, està ¡ incluido alojamiento y manutencià ³n y en muchos casos uniforme e incluso lavanderà ­a. ¿Quà © visa se necesita?: Si el crucero solo toca un puerto de EE.UU. es suficiente la visa D. Por el contrario, si es necesario viajar a EE.UU. para embarcarse en el barco en el que se va a trabajar es necesaria la visa C1/D. ¿Se pagan impuestos en EE.UU. si se tiene una visa C1 /D?: como regla general, no se pagan impuestos, salvo acuerdo internacional entre EE.UU. y el paà ­s de origen del trabajador. Este es un artà ­culo informativo. No es asesorà ­a legal.

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

To Kill A Mockingbird and Same Free Essays

To Kill A Mockingbird and Same love’s Theme Comparison No matter what time period we are living, there is and always will be diversity, people with different ways of thinking, and discrimination. Both in the story To Kill A Mockingbird, by Harper Lee and in the modern song titled â€Å"Same Love†, by Macklemore and Ryan Lewis, share an obvious theme, Do not worry about what people say about you; it is okay to be different. In the story To Kill A Mockingbird, the Finch family has to face societys negativity in order to stand for what they believe in. We will write a custom essay sample on To Kill A Mockingbird and Same or any similar topic only for you Order Now During the 1930s, African Americans were not treated the same way as white people. They were looked down on and were not welcomed by most white people, but the Finch family was different. One of the protagonists, Atticus Finch, believed in equality for everyone. He had an African American helper named Calpurnia and treated her as if she was family. Atticus was a lawyer who was asked to defend an innocent African American man win a case down South during the 1930s. When the word went around in his little hometown, Maycomb, he and his children had to deal with the racism of the people who lived in Maycomb and the negativity surrounding their feelings toward â€Å"niggers†. This did not stop Atticus or upset him; he simply kept his head up and kept doing what he believed was right, treating everyone equally. The song â€Å"Same Love† discusses a very big topic in society today, accepting gays, just as â€Å"To Kill A Mockingbird† discussed a very big topic for its time, which was accepting African Americans. This song explains how it is to be different from veryone else and how it is to be something that many people think is wrong. In the song it says, â€Å"If I was gay I would think hip-hop hates me. Have you read the YouTube comments lately? ‘Man, that’s gay gets dropped on the daily some would rather die than be who they are. Today, a lot of people are afraid to show who they really are because they are afraid of what society will say. However, the song encourages people who are gay to â€Å"Progress, march on! † Just as in To Kill A Mockingbird, â€Å"Same Love† shares the theme do not worry about what people say about you, it is okay to be different. Because the time periods vary ach other, the topic society rages about is different, during the 1930s there was racism and for the year 2013 there is accepting gay marriage and gays in general. There were good hearted people during the 1930s that had the mentality that everyone is equal and they had to deal with a racist society, which consisted of a larger population than the good hearted people. Today there are probably Just as many people who against being gay as there are people who believe that it doesn’t matter what sex you like. Which comes to show, that there is always going to be diversity, people witn different ways ot living, hate, and discrimination. How to cite To Kill A Mockingbird and Same, Papers

Wednesday, April 29, 2020

Jonathan Swifts Gullivers Travels Essays (785 words) -

Jonathan Swifts Gulliver's Travels Gulliver in Houynhnmland One of the most interesting questions about Gullivers Travels is whether the Houyhnhnms represent an ideal of rationality or whether on the other hand they are the butt of Swift's satire. In other words, in Book IV, is Swift poking fun at the talking horses or does he intend for us to take them seriously as the proper way to act? If we look closely at the way that the Houyhnhnms act, we can see that in fact Swift does not take them seriously: he uses them to show the dangers of pride. First we have to see that Swift does not even take Gullver seriously. For instance, his name sounds much like gullible, which suggests that he will believe anything. Also, when he first sees the Yahoos and they throw excrement on him, he responds by doing the same in return until they run away. He says, "I must needs discover some more rational being," (203) even though as a human he is already the most rational being there is. This is why Swift refers to Erasmus Darwins discovery of the origin of the species and the voyage of the Beagle_to show how Gulliver knows that people are at the top of the food chain. But if Lemule Gulliver is satirized, so are the Houyhnhnms, whose voices sound like the call of castrati. They walk on two legs instead of four, and seem to be much like people. As Gulliver says, "It was with the utmost astonishment that I witnessed these creatures playing the flute and dancing a Vienese waltz. To my mind, they seemed like the greatest humans ever seen in court, even more dextrous than the Lord Edmund Burke" (162). As this quote demonstrates, Gulliver is terribly impressed, but his admiration for the Houyhnhnms is short-lived because they are so prideful. For instance, the leader of the Houyhnhnms claims that he has read all the works of Charles Dickens, and that he can singlehandedly recite the names of all the Kings and Queens of England up to George II. Swift subtly shows that this Houyhnhnms pride is misplaced when, in the middle of the intellectual competition, he forgets the name of Queen Elizabeths husband. Swifts satire of the Houyhnhnms comes out in other ways as well. One of the most memorable scenes is when the dapple grey mare attempts to woo the horse that Guenivre has brought with him to the island. First she acts flirtatiously, parading around the bewildered horse. But when this does not have the desired effect, she gets another idea: "As I watched in amazement from my perch in the top of a tree, the sorrel nag dashed off and returned with a yahoo on her back who was yet more monstrous than Mr. Pope being fitted by a clothier. She dropped this creature before my nag as if offering up a sacrifice. My horse sniffed the creature and turned away." (145) It might seem that we should take this scene seriously as a failed attempt at courtship, and that consequently we should see the grey mare as an unrequited lover. But it makes more sense if we see that Swift is being satiric here: it is the female Houyhnhnm who makes the move, which would not have happened in eighteenth- century England. The Houyhnhm is being prideful, and it is that pride that makes him unable to impress Gullivers horse. Gulliver imagines the horse saying, Sblood, the notion of creating the bare backed beast with an animal who had held Mr. Pope on her back makes me queezy (198). A final indication that the Houyhnmns are not meant to be taken seriously occurs when the leader of the Houynhms visits Lilliput, where he visits the French Royal Society. He goes into a room in which a scientist is trying to turn wine into water (itself a prideful act that refers to the marriage at Gallilee). The scientist has been working hard at the experiment for many years without success, when the Houyhnmn arrives and immediately knows that to do: "The creature no sooner stepped through the doorway than he struck upon a plan. Slurping up all the wine in sight, he quickly made water in a bucket that sat near the door" (156). He has accomplished the scientists goal, but the scientist is not happy, for his livelihood has now been destroyed. Swifts clear implication is that even though the Houyhnhmns are smart, they do not know how to use that knowledge for the benefit of society, only for their own prideful agrandizement. Throughout Gullivers Travels,

Friday, March 20, 2020

Ira essays

Ira essays If you're like most people, there's nothing more important to you than your family. As difficult as it is for you to imagine not being there for them, it's a risk we all face. To help be sure your loved ones have the financial protection they'll need, it's important to not only think about the unexpected, but to plan for it. If you were gone, who would provide for your loved ones? Who would help... Cover the cost of raising your children? Life insurance can help give your family the protection they need while providing you with peace of mind. It can help provide continuing income and help pay the billskeeping your family's hopes and dreams alive even after your death. or to find out if you're approved for up to $150,000 of immediate 10-year term life insurance that could save you up to 30%.* Coverage starts today with no medical exam if Or, get more information on other life insurance coverage offered through U.S. Bancorp in higher coverage amounts for maximum coverage at the lowest premiums that can be designed for long-term protection while providing flexibility in terms of premium payments and cash value accumulation. Applying for 10- and 20-year underwritten term and universal life insurance involves an interview and a medical exam (including blood and urine samples). Initially, premiums are lower than those for various forms of whole life insurance, thus allowing you to purchase higher amounts of insurance coverage. It is good for covering specific needs that will disappear in time, such as Premiums will increase as you grow older and at the end of the term of the policy you purchase, such as 10 year term. In the 11th year the premiums will increase. ...

Wednesday, March 4, 2020

American Civil War in the West - 1863-1865

American Civil War in the West - 1863-1865 The Tullahoma Campaign As Grant was conducting operations against Vicksburg, the American Civil War in the West continued in Tennessee. In June, after pausing in Murfreesboro for nearly six months, Maj. Gen. William Rosecrans began moving against Gen. Braxton Braggs Army of Tennessee at Tullahoma, TN. Conducting a brilliant campaign of maneuver, Rosecrans was able to turn Bragg out of several defensive positions, forcing him to abandon Chattanooga and driving him from the state. Battle of Chickamauga Reinforced by Lt. Gen. James Longstreets corps from the Army of Northern Virginia and a division from Mississippi, Bragg laid a trap for Rosecrans in the hills of northwestern Georgia. Advancing south, the Union general encountered Braggs army at Chickamauga on September 18, 1863. Fighting began in earnest the following day when Union Maj. Gen. George H. Thomas attacked Confederate troops on his front. For most of the day, fighting surged up and down the lines with each side attacking and counterattacking. On the morning of the 20th, Bragg attempted to flank Thomas position at Kelly Field, with little success. In response to the failed attacks, he ordered a general assault on the Union lines. Around 11:00 AM, confusion led to a gap opening in the Union line as units were shifted to support Thomas. As Maj. Gen. Alexander McCook was attempting to plug the gap, Longstreets corps attacked, exploiting the hole and routing the right wing of Rosecrans army. Retreating with his men, Rosecrans departed the field leaving Thomas in command. Too heavily engaged to withdrawal, Thomas consolidated his corps around Snodgrass Hill and Horseshoe Ridge. From these positions his troops beat off numerous Confederate assaults before falling back under the cover of darkness. This heroic defense earned Thomas the moniker The Rock of Chickamauga. In the fighting, Rosecrans suffered 16,170 casualties, while Braggs army incurred 18,454. Siege of Chattanooga Stunned by the defeat at Chickamauga, Rosecrans retreated all the way back to Chattanooga. Bragg followed and occupied the high ground around the city effectively putting the Army of the Cumberland under siege. To the west, Maj. Gen. Ulysses S. Grant was resting with his army near Vicksburg. On October 17, he was given command of the Military Division of the Mississippi and control of all Union armies in the West. Moving quickly, Grant replaced Rosecrans with Thomas and worked to reopen supply lines to Chattanooga. This done, he shifted 40,000 men under Maj. Gens. William T. Sherman and Joseph Hooker east to reinforce the city. As Grant was pouring troops into the area, Bragg numbers were reduced when Longstreets corps was ordered away for a campaign around Knoxville, TN. Battle of Chattanooga On November 24, 1863, Grant began operations to drive Braggs army away from Chattanooga. Attacking at dawn, Hookers men drove Confederate forces from Lookout Mountain south of the city. Fighting in this area ended around 3:00 PM when ammunition ran low and a heavy fog enveloped the mountain, earning the fight the nickname Battle Above the Clouds. At the other end of the line, Sherman advanced taking Billy Goat Hill at the north end of the Confederate position. The following day, Grant planned for Hooker and Sherman to flank Braggs line, allowing Thomas to advance up the face of Missionary Ridge in the center. As the day progressed, the flank attacks became bogged down. Feeling that Bragg was weakening his center to reinforce his flanks, Grant ordered Thomas men to move forward to assault the three lines of Confederate trenches on the ridge. After securing the first line, they were pinned down by fire from the remaining two. Rising up, Thomas men, without orders, pressed on up the slope, chanting Chickamauga! Chickamauga! and broke the center of Braggs lines. With no choice, Bragg ordered the army to retreat back to Dalton, GA. As a result of his defeat, President Jefferson Davis relieved Bragg and replaced him with Gen. Joseph E. Johnston. Changes in Command In March 1964, President Abraham Lincoln promoted Grant to lieutenant general and placed him in supreme command of all Union armies. Departing Chattanooga, Grant turned over command to Maj. Gen. William T. Sherman. A long-time and trusted subordinate of Grants, Sherman immediately made plans for driving on Atlanta. His command consisted of three armies which were to operate in concert: the Army of the Tennessee, under Maj. Gen. James B. McPherson, the Army of the Cumberland, under Maj. Gen. George H. Thomas, and the Army of the Ohio, under Maj. Gen. John M. Schofield. The Campaign for Atlanta Moving southeast with 98,000 men, Sherman first encountered Johnstons 65,000-man army near Rocky Face Gap in northwest Georgia. Maneuvering around Johnstons position, Sherman next met the Confederates at Resaca on May 13, 1864. After failing to break Johnstons defenses outside the town, Sherman again marched around his flank and forced the Confederates to fall back. Through the remainder of May, the Sherman steadily maneuvered Johnston back towards Atlanta with battles occurring at Adairsville, New Hope Church, Dallas, and Marietta. On June 27, with the roads too muddy to steal a march on the Confederates, Sherman attempted to attack their positions near Kennesaw Mountain. Repeated assaults failed to take the Confederate entrenchments and Shermans men fell back. By July 1, the roads had improved allowing Sherman to again move around Johnstons flank, dislodging him from his entrenchments. The Battles for Atlanta On July 17, 1864, tired of Johnstons constant retreats, President Jefferson Davis gave command of the Army of Tennessee to the aggressive  Lt. Gen. John Bell Hood. The new commanders first move was to  attack Thomas army near Peachtree Creek, northeast of Atlanta. Several determined assaults struck the Union lines, but were ultimately all repulsed. Hood next withdrew his forces to the inner defenses of the city hoping Sherman would follow and open himself up to attack. On July 22, Hood  assaulted McPhersons Army of the Tennessee  on the Union left. After the attack achieved initial success, rolling up the Union line, it was stopped by massed artillery and counterattacks. McPherson was killed in the fighting and replaced with  Maj. Gen. Oliver O. Howard. Unable to penetrate the Atlanta defenses from the north and east, Sherman moved to the west of the city but was blocked by the Confederates at  Ezra Church  on July 28. Sherman next decided to force Hood from Atlanta by cutting the railroads and supply lines into the city. Pulling almost of his forces from around the city, Sherman marched on Jonesborough to the south. On August 31, Confederate troops  attacked the Union position  but were easily driven away. The next day Union troops counterattacked and broke through the Confederate lines. As his men fell back, Hood realized that the cause was lost and began evacuating Atlanta on the night of September 1. His army retreated west towards Alabama. In the campaign, Shermans armies suffered 31,687 casualties, while the Confederates under Johnston and Hood had 34,979. Battle of Mobile Bay As Sherman was closing in on Atlanta, the US Navy was conducting operations against Mobile, AL. Led by  Rear Admiral David G. Farragut, fourteen wooden warships and four monitors ran past Forts Morgan and Gaines at the mouth of Mobile Bay and attacked the ironclad  CSS  Tennessee  and three gunboats. In doing so, they passed near a torpedo (mine) field, which claimed the monitor USS  Tecumseh. Seeing the monitor sink, the ships in front of Farraguts flagship paused, causing him to famously exclaim Damn the torpedoes! Full speed ahead! Pressing on into the bay, his fleet captured CSS  Tennessee  and closed the port to Confederate shipping. The victory, coupled with the fall of Atlanta, greatly aided Lincoln in his reelection campaign that November. Franklin Nashville Campaign While Sherman rested his army at Atlanta, Hood planned a new campaign designed to cut the Union supply lines back to Chattanooga. He moved west into Alabama hoping to draw Sherman into following, before turning north towards Tennessee. To counter Hoods movements, Sherman dispatched Thomas and Schofield back north to protect Nashville. Marching separately, Thomas arrived first. Hood seeing that the Union forces were divided, moved to defeat them before they could concentrate. Battle of Franklin On November 29, Hood nearly trapped Schofields force near Spring Hill, TN, but the Union general was able to extricate his men from the trap and reach Franklin. Upon arriving they occupied fortifications on the outskirts of town. Hood arrived the following day and launched a massive frontal assault on the Union lines. Sometimes referred to as the Picketts Charge of the West, the attack was repulsed with heavy casualties and six Confederate generals dead. Battle of Nashville The victory at Franklin allowed Schofield to reach Nashville and rejoin Thomas. Hood, despite the wounded condition of his army, pursued and arrived outside the city on December 2. Safe in the citys defenses, Thomas slowly prepared for the upcoming battle. Under tremendous pressure from Washington to finish off Hood, Thomas finally attacked on December 15. Following two days of assaults, Hoods army crumbled and dissolved, effectively destroyed as a fighting force. Shermans March to the Sea With Hood occupied in Tennessee, Sherman planned his campaign to take Savannah. Believing the Confederacy would only surrender if its capacity for making war was destroyed, Sherman ordered his troops to conduct a total scorched earth campaign, destroying everything in their path. Departing Atlanta on November 15, the army advanced in two columns under  Maj. Gens. Henry Slocum  and Oliver O. Howard. After cutting a swath across Georgia, Sherman arrived outside of Savannah on December 10. Making contact with the US Navy, he demanded the citys surrender. Rather than capitulate,  Lt. Gen. William J. Hardee  evacuated the city and fled north with the garrison. After occupying the city, Sherman telegraphed Lincoln, I beg to present you as a Christmas gift the City of Savannah... The Carolinas Campaign and the Final Surrender With Savannah captured, Grant issued orders for Sherman to bring his army north to aid in the  siege of Petersburg. Rather than travel by sea, Sherman proposed marching overland, laying waste to the Carolinas along the way. Grant approved and Shermans 60,000-man army moved out in January 1865, with the goal of capturing Columbia, SC. As Union troops entered South Carolina, the first state to secede, no mercy was given. Facing Sherman was a reconstituted army under his old adversary, Joseph E. Johnston, who seldom had more than 15,000 men. On February 10, Federal troops entered Columbia and burned everything of military value. Pushing north, Shermans forces encountered Johnstons small army at  Bentonville, NC on March 19. The Confederates launched five attacks against the Union line to no avail. On the 21st, Johnston broke off contact and retreated towards Raleigh. Pursuing the Confederates, Sherman finally compelled Johnston to agree to an armistice at Bennett Place near Durham Station, NC on April 17. After negotiating surrender terms, Johnston capitulated on the 26th. Coupled with  Gen. Robert E. Lees  surrender on the 9th, the surrender effectively ended the Civil War.

Monday, February 17, 2020

Do we live in a celebrity-dominated consumer culture Essay

Do we live in a celebrity-dominated consumer culture - Essay Example "They should not be treated as fodder." But that's exactly how they are treated. MTV executives deny it, but when their young subjects vie for space with J-Lo and Jolie on the covers of People and Us Magazine, it's hard to say the shows aren't glamorizing teen motherhood. At a time when poorer, less educated teens in the U.S. are statistically more at risk of having children out of wedlock, this drive for market share feels predatory and seedy and feeds right into an American culture beset by narcissistic, self-destructive behavior† Tafaro, E. A., & Zuccarello, F. (2012, July-August). Chopped Chef: Celebrity Chefs Have Become Big Business. Not Having Adequate Disability Insurance for Them Can Be a Recipe for Disaster. Risk Management, 59(6), 16+. "If you are a Baby Boomer, you probably remember the cooking show The French Chef. Filmed live and uncut, you could hear the pots and pans bang, oven doors squeak, and chef Julia Child's singsong patter about life in the kitchen. It wa sn't terribly exciting, but Child became a pop-culture icon and was in many ways the first true celebrity chef. But somewhere along the way that tiny kitchen on Julia Child's low-budget set became "Kitchen Stadium" on Food Network's popular Iron Chef series. It became a place where chefs enter a culinary arena like gourmet gladiators, accompanied by blaring music, blinding lights that could illuminate an airport runway and the almost surreal sight of a man hoisting a $100,000 camera on his back while zooming in on the perfect close-up of a stick of butter melting in a frying pan. Today's celebrity chefs are treated like rock stars because they get paid like rock stars, led by Gordon Ramsay... This "Do we live in a celebrity-dominated consumer culture?" essay outlines how media change our values and our consumer needs. "Blum notes, however, that critical demands for "more realistic" media images are ineffectual: "To imagine that there are people who could change the images if they wanted to is to misunderstand the embeddedness of the image producers in a cultural machinery that they don't run but instead merely service. For them, as well as us, the linage and beauty are coextensive" (p. 65). Feminist calls for resistance to the beauty myth are no better, for there is no way to step outside the cultural frame and distinguish between genuine desires and those that are merely distortions of consumer capitalism. Blum cautions that in fact, "[w]e need to transcend feminist criticisms of body practices that can wind up being as shaming as the physical imperfections that drove us to beautify in the first place" (p. 63). I find little to disagree with in this analysis, as fer as i t goes, but find it strange that there is so little explicit consideration of the role of patriarchal structures in the increasingly high demands for feminine beauty. Although it's true that more men seek cosmetic surgery than ever before, Blum offers little discussion of how the need for male approval may influence women's choices to seek surgery. (And having recently read several devastating feminist critiques of the popularity of "labia reduction" and "vaginal rejuvenation" surgeries, I can't help but wonder what Blum's take on those procedures would be.)"